波兰若承诺2050气候中和,二氧化碳排放第一大省有望获百亿欧元支持
2020-10-16 iGDP 易碳家
据新兴欧洲2020年9月7日报道,根据智库Instrat受ClientEarth委托进行的一项研究表明,波兰罗兹省可能会成为欧盟转型资金公平供给机制的第二大受益者,获得资金用于煤炭区转型。
Poland’s Łódzkie region could become Europe’s second largest beneficiary of funds from the European Union’s Just Transition Mechanism for the transformation of coal regions, according to experts from the think tank Instrat in a study commissioned by ClientEarth.
 
该报告指出,绿色投资可以创造61000个工作岗位,比目前在贝乌哈图夫电站采矿和燃煤行业就业人数多6倍。获得这些资金的条件是,罗兹省建立一个公正过渡区域计划,并且波兰政府承诺2050年前实现气候中和。
The report suggests that 61,000 jobs could be created by green investments, six times more than the current number of people employed in mining and lignite combustion at the Bełchatów Power Plant. The funds can be acquired under the condition that the region establishes a Just Transition Territorial Plan and that the Polish government pledges to achieve climate neutrality by 2050.
 
"煤炭经济的支持者声称,结束燃煤将导致电厂和矿井出现大规模裁员潮。但恰恰相反,以贝乌哈图夫为例,绿色投资所创造的就业岗位比贝乌哈图夫发电厂和露天矿群目前雇用的员工多六倍",该研究报告的共同作者Paweł Czyżak解释说。"这个过程中的关键一步是政府宣布在 2050 年之前实现气候中和。如果没有这个承诺,公正过渡基金将减半,而贝乌哈图夫将失去 25000 个潜在的工作岗位,"Czyżak 补充道。
“Supporters of the coal economy claim that ending coal combustion will result in a wave of mass layoffs in power plants and mines. It is quite the opposite – using the example of Bełchatów, we show that green investments can generate up to six times more jobs than the Bełchatów Power Plant and Open Pit-Mine Complex currently employs”, explains Paweł Czyżak, a co-author of the study. “The key step in this process is the government’s declaration of achieving climate neutrality by 2050 – without it, funds for just transition will be halved, and Bełchatów will lose 25,000 potential jobs,” adds Czyżak.
 
罗兹省在2021-2027年期间有机会从欧洲基金中获得高达450亿兹罗提(约100亿欧元)的资金,其中包括来自转型资金公平供给机制的130亿兹罗提(30亿欧元)。如果波兰不承诺在2050年之前实现气候中和,它将只能动用一半资金。这笔资金与波兰自2004年加入欧盟以来分配给该区域的项目资金的总额相当。
The Łódzkie region has a chance to obtain up to 45 billion zloty (around 10 billion euros) from European funds for the 2021-2027 period, including 13 billion zloty (three billion euros) from the Just Transition Mechanism. It will only be able to draw on half of these funds if Poland does not pledge to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. This amount is comparable to the total value of EU funds allocated to projects in the region since Poland joined the EU in 2004.
 
报告作者采用了欧盟智库联合研究中心的方法。
The report’s authors adopted the methodology of the Joint Research Centre, the European Commission’s think tank.
 
建筑物热能改造投资将带来最多的就业机会,多达25000个,大型光伏装置投资将带来19000个岗位,消费型太阳能和电动汽车电池生产投资分别带来6500个和4800个。如果有当地企业和国际金融机构等民间资金的参与,这些数字可以高出数倍。
The largest boost to jobs, as many as 25,000, will be generated by investments in the thermal retrofit of buildings, 19,000 at large photovoltaic installations, 6,500 in prosumer solar energy and 4,800 in the production of batteries for electric vehicles. With the involvement of private financing, both local businesses and international financial institutions, these numbers can be several times higher.
 
"私人投资者和国际发展机构的参与对于扩大贝乌哈图夫地区公正过渡的潜在利益至关重要,"报告的共同作者、Instrat公正过渡可持续融资研究项目负责人Katarzyna Szwarc指出。"公正过渡所需的资金是巨大的,但可以通过绿色和可持续债券或混合融资等工具获得。"
“The involvement of private investors and international development institutions will be crucial in scaling the potential benefits of the just transition in the Bełchatów region,” notes Katarzyna Szwarc, co-author of the report and leader of the Sustainable Finance for Just Transition research programme  at Instrat. “The funding needed for a just transition is significant, but it can be obtained with instruments such as green and sustainable bonds or hybrid financing.”
 
欧盟转型资金公平供给机制和公正过渡基金的主要目标是创造就业和保持远离煤炭地区的经济潜力。财政援助根据三个标准进行分配:地区的温室气体排放量、工业和矿业就业岗位。
The main goal of the EU’s Just Transition Mechanism and the Just Transition Fund is to create jobs and maintain the economic potential of regions that move away from coal. Financial aid is allocated according to three criteria: the amount of greenhouse gas emissions in the region, employment in industry and employment in mining.
 
因为贝乌哈图夫电站,罗兹省二氧化碳排放量是波兰最高的,这使其有机会从该机制中获得大量资金。获得第一笔50%的资金的条件是准备一份区域公正过渡计划,并在2020年底前提交给欧盟委员会。如果波兰和罗兹省同意在2050年之前采用气候中和的目标,将获得另一半资金。
Because of Bełchatów, the Łódzkie region has the highest CO2 emissions in Poland, which gives it a chance to receive significant funds from this mechanism. The condition for receiving the first 50 per cent of funds is to prepare a Territorial Just Transition Plan and submit it to the European Commission by the end of 2020. The second half of funds will be granted if Poland and the region agree to adopt the goal of climate neutrality by 2050.
 
"公正过渡基金对于罗兹省、贝乌哈图夫地区的居民以及矿山和发电厂群的员工来说是一个很好的机会。贝乌哈图夫的褐煤矿藏将在未来10-15年内耗尽,而随着排放配额价格的增长,其作为欧洲最大的二氧化碳排放者所付出的维护成本将越来越高。欧盟为发展绿色岗位和绿色技术提供了大量支持,但作为回报,欧洲机构希望结束燃煤,因为燃煤对环境和气候有害。"环境法慈善机构ClientEarth的Ilona Jędrasik说。
“The Just Transition Fund is a great opportunity for Łódzkie, residents of the Bełchatów region and employees of the mine and power plant complex. Lignite deposits in Bełchatów will run out in the next 10-15 years, whereas the maintenance costs of the largest CO2 emitter in Europe are becoming higher and higher as the prices of emission allowances grow. The European Union offers significant support for the development of green jobs and green technologies, but in return, European institutions expect an end to the combustion of coal, which is harmful to the environment and climate,” says Ilona Jędrasik from ClientEarth, an environmental law charity.
 
"因此,地方当局和波兰最大的能源生产商PGE必须迅速做出明确的决定,逐步关闭电厂,并放弃在兹沃切夫建设新的褐煤厂,"Jędrasik补充道。
“Local authorities and PGE – the largest energy producer in Poland – must therefore make a quick and clear decision on the gradual closure of the power plant and abandon the construction of a new lignite mine in Złoczew,” adds Jędrasik.
 
新的绿色工作是该地区留住年轻人的机会。根据由地区非政府组织Źródła委托进行的研究表明,来自贝乌哈图夫及其附近地区的高中生,其中的46%打算在毕业后离开这里。作出这一决定的原因主要是缺乏发展机会、希望提高生活质量以及这里环境质量差。
New green jobs are a chance for the region to keep young people. According to research commissioned by the regional NGO Źródła, as many as 46 per cent of students of upper secondary schools from Bełchatów and its vicinity intend to leave the region after graduating from school. The reasons for such a decision are, among others, the lack of development opportunities, the desire to improve the quality of life and poor quality of the environment.
 
波兰是唯一没有签署到2050年实现气候中和宣言的欧盟国家。
Poland is the only European Union country that has not signed the declaration of achieving climate neutrality by 2050.
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